Sračja dolina Valley (Magpie Valley)
The Sračja dolina Valley, also known as the valley of Črnušnjica, stretches along the Črnušnjica Stream on the hilly area of Rašica, southwest of Črnuče, and is the recreational area of Ljubljana as well as the area of valuable natural features. Due to intertwining of the marshy terrain and rich water network, the Sračja dolina Valley is an important ecological area on the regional scale and is also intended to be included in Rašica-Dobeno Landscape Park.
The Sračja dolina Valley is a wide flat valley that extends southeast from Rašica along the Črnušnjica Stream all the way to Črnuče. The valley was first carved by the Črnušnjica Stream; however, several streams later filled it up with their alluvia. During Ice Ages, the filling was reinforced, as solifluction and denudation of the surrounding hills were increased too. In the lower section of the valley, the Sava River probably dammed the valley with gravel in the geological past and a lake and later marshes probably emerged in the area of Gmajna. Layers of clay and peat started to accumulate. It could be concluded that the dam was created since the terrace where the centre of Črnuče and Stare Črnuče are located is gravel.
Due to the gentle slope, the valley is swampy; although, the Črnušnjica has up to this day excavated a deepened riverbed, almost 2 km long. In general, the stream beds in the lower part of the valley in the settlement of Gmajna drain the swampy ground.
In 2000, the inventory of fauna (stoneflies, caddisflies, dragonflies, butterflies, amphibians and birds) and vegetation was made, as well as the evaluation of environmental value of the 155 ha area. The Sračja dolina Valley proved as an important habitat of rare and endangered animal and plant species. 29 mostly swampy and wet habitats were recorded, which provide sanctuary for 272 species and subspecies of ferns and spermatophytes, 45 species of birds, 8 species of amphibians, 53 species of butterflies and 6 species of dragonflies. The Sračja dolina Valley is intended for the inclusion in Rašica-Dobeno Landscape Park.
The clustered village lies at the altitude of 430 metres on the sunny slope of the eponymous hill on the northern edge of the Ljubljana Basin. The village was first mentioned in 1260.
Rašica Hill is a solitary karst hill with the highest point of Vrh Staneta Kosca (641 m), named after the national hero Stane Kosec (1913-1941), a local from Rašica. A high metal viewing tower is situated at the top which offers a marvellous view in all directions, but the most beautiful is the one of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. Just below the top there is the Mountain Hut of Rašiška četa (631 m), managed by the Rašica Mountaineering Society from Ljubljana-Šentvid.
Rašica was occupied by Germans in 1941. The villagers soon joined the national liberation movement. Already on 24 July 1941, Rašiška četa Company was established in the Rašica forests, operating all the way to Domžale, Kamnik and Kranj. The Partisan movement expanded to such an extent that Kamnik Battalion was established on Rašica on 17 August 1941. People of Rašica supported National Liberation War and thus the Germans burnt down the village on 20 September 1941 and deported its inhabitants. Rašica was thus the first Slovenian village to be burned down by the occupying forces. The monument on the hill above the road to Spodnje Gameljne at the beginning of the village commemorates this tragic event.
The village was renovated after the war and numerous new houses have been built recently. Most of the inhabitants are employed in Ljubljana, farmers are but scarce nowadays. The settlement and the top of Rašica are popular hiking destinations of citizens of Ljubljana.
Church of Holy Cross
The church was first mentioned in 1526. The original church, built in the Gothic style, was reconstructed in Baroque style in the 17th and 18th centuries. During World War I (in 1917), the church donated two church bells for military purposes, only the central bell from 1778, weighing 168 kg, remained. In 1924, the church received two new copper bells. In World War II, the church was together with the village burnt down by Germans, and was in ruins until its first renovation in 1968, only a bell tower remained. The bells were saved by the citizens of Dobeno who kept them until the renovation.
The church was finally renovated in 1989 of which testifies the copper plate in front of the church entrance.
Karst and caves on Rašica
There are nine registered karst caves in the area of Rašica but none of them is open to public. The total length of cave passages on Rašica is 319 metres and their total depth is 110 metres. Brezno 1 at Dovčar, which is also the largest and deepest cave in the municipality, stands out with its dimensions. The caves of Rašica host various animal species which are adopted to the environment with less light and stay in the underground most of their lives (cave spider) or which only occasionally live in caves (bats, cave crickets, snails, etc.).
Extensive and interesting expert material on the world of caves in the Municipality of Ljubljana, from which this information has been taken, was prepared in 2009 by the Cave Exploration Society of Ljubljana which in 2010 celebrated its 100th anniversary of continuous cave exploration.